Los Angeles, the second largest city in the United States and the largest economic power on the West Coast, was first colonized by indigenous tribes, including the Chumash and Tongva hunter-gatherers, around 8000 BC. C. It is believed that these colonists traveled from Siberia to Canada and then moved south through an opening in the ice sheets, until they reached the interior of North America. This theory is known as the Clovis First theory, which states that the colonists arrived about 13,000 years ago.
This theory was further solidified when artifacts from the Clovis culture were found elsewhere in the Americas. In 1835, Los Angeles was officially declared a city by the Mexican Congress, making it the capital of Alta California. However, recent research has suggested that humans may have been living in California as early as 120,000 to 140,000 years ago - more than one hundred thousand years before humans were thought to have existed anywhere in the Americas. This discovery has caused much controversy. Although Los Angeles County never suffered bombardments or enemy invasions, it became an integral part of the United States Theater on the night of February 24 to 25, 1942, during the false battle of Los Angeles. This battle took place one day after the Japanese naval bombing of Ellwood in Santa Barbara, California, 80 miles from Los Angeles. The city of Los Angeles remained primarily within its original 28 square mile (73 km) concession until the 1890s.
During this time, much of Los Angeles County was farmland, with an emphasis on livestock, dairy products, vegetables, and citrus fruits. The Japanese-American community in Los Angeles was heavily affected since Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor dragged the U. S. into World War II. In 1876, the Newhall Rail Tunnel was completed between San Fernando and Lyons Station (now Newhall), providing a link between San Francisco and Los Angeles for the railroad.
In December 1777, Viceroy Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursua and Commander General Teodoro de Croix approved the founding of a civic municipality in Los Angeles and a new prison or garrison in Santa Barbara. The Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce feared that the South Pacific would control the port, so it tried to favor the location of San Pedro - leading to what is now known as The Fight for The Free Port. The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum opened in May 1923 with a capacity of 76,000 seats and was later expanded to accommodate more than 100,000 spectators at Olympic events. The original boundaries of the city are still visible today in its street design - which goes from a north-south pattern outside of its original land grant to a pattern that shifts approximately 15 degrees east of longitude in what is now known as Downtown and its surroundings. If it is true that humans broke mastodon bones 130,000 years ago, scientists will have to rethink how humans arrived in the Americas. During this time period, Los Angeles was known as Queen of Cows County for its role in providing beef and other food to hungry miners in Northern California. In 1958, both Major League Baseball teams - The Dodgers and Giants - left New York City and arrived in Los Angeles and San Francisco respectively. Indigenous tribes were banished to distant missions - Toypurina to San Carlos Borromeo (Mission Carmelo in Carmel-By-The-Sea) and Nicolás José to San Francisco de Asis (Mission Dolores in San Francisco).